Dengue Fever


A mosquito-borne disease called dengue fever affects tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Flu-like symptoms and a high temperature are signs of mild dengue fever. Dengue is spread by several species of female mosquitoes of the Aedes genus, principally Aedes aegypti. The severe variety of dengue fever, also known as dengue hemorrhagic fever, can result in fatalities, significant bleeding, a sharp drop in blood pressure, and shock.

International Anti-Dengue Day is observed every year on 15 June.



Many people experience no signs or symptoms of dengue infection.

When symptoms do occur, they may be mistaken for other illnesses, such as the flu, and usually begin four to 10 days after you are bitten by an infected mosquito.

Dengue fever causes a high fever and any of the following signs and symptoms:

  • Headache

  • Muscle, bone, or joint pain

  • Nausea

  • Vomiting

  • Pain behind the eyes

  • Swollen glands

  • Rash

Within a week or so, the majority of people recover. In certain circumstances, symptoms might get severe and even be fatal. Dengue shock syndrome, dengue hemorrhagic fever, or severe dengue are terms used to describe it. Also, the quantity of platelets—cells that help blood clot—decreases in your blood. Internal bleeding, shock, organ failure, and even death can result from this.

A life-threatening emergency called severe dengue fever might immediately show warning signals. The cautionary indicators may include the following and usually appear within the first day or two after your fever has subsided:

  • Severe stomach pain

  • Persistent vomiting

  • Bleeding from your gums or nose

  • Blood in your urine, stools, or vomit

  • Bleeding under the skin, which might look like bruising

  • Difficult or rapid breathing

  • Fatigue

  • Irritability or restlessness



One of four different dengue viruses can cause dengue fever. Being around an infected person won't cause you to develop dengue fever. Mosquito bites instead spread dengue fever.

The two mosquito species that transfer dengue viruses most frequently are prevalent both inside and outside of residential buildings. A mosquito contracts the dengue virus when it bites a person who has the disease. The virus then enters the victim's circulation and starts an infection when the infected mosquito bites someone else.

Once you have recovered from dengue fever, you are immune to the virus type that caused your infection for life, but not to the other three types that cause dengue fever. This implies that one of the other three virus types could infect you once more in the future. In the event that you contract dengue fever a second, third, or fourth time, your risk of acquiring severe dengue fever rises.



Dengue virus is primarily transmitted by Aedes mosquitos, particularly A. aegypti. They typically bite during the early morning and in the evening, but they may bite and thus spread infection at any time of day. Other Aedes species that transmit the disease include A. albopictus, A. polynesiensis, and A. scutellaris. Humans are the primary host of the virus, but it also circulates in nonhuman primates. An infection can be acquired via a single bite. A female mosquito takes a blood meal from a person infected with dengue fever, during the initial 2- to 10-day febrile period.


Risk Factors:

You run a higher chance of contracting dengue fever or a more serious variation of the illness if

  • You frequently travel to or reside in tropical areas. Your risk of contracting the virus that causes dengue fever increases when you are in tropical and subtropical regions. Southeast Asia, the islands of the western Pacific, Latin America, and Africa are among the regions with particularly high risk.

  • You are more likely to experience severe symptoms of dengue fever if you have previously been infected with the virus.



Doctors use blood tests to check for antibodies to the dengue viruses or the presence of infection. A doctor may use a virological test or a serological test.

Virological test: This test directly tests for elements of the virus. This type of testing often requires specialized equipment and a staff that’s technically trained, so this type of testing may not be available in all medical facilities.

Serological test: This test detects antibodies in the blood to confirm a current or recent infection. If you experience dengue symptoms after traveling outside the country, you should see a healthcare professional check whether you have the virus.



  • Internal bleeding and organ damage are potential effects of severe dengue infection.

  • Shock can result from dangerously low blood pressure.

  • Severe dengue illness occasionally results in fatalities.

  • Increased bleeding from various body parts

  • Decreased number of platelets

  • Leakage of the blood plasma

  • Dengue shock syndrome- where the blood pressure falls below 20mmHg along with the collapse of peripheral vascular blood vessels.

  • Episodes of reduced consciousness when the brain is infected with the virus leading to inflammation are seen.

  • Those who contract dengue fever while pregnant run the risk of passing the illness on to the unborn child.

  • In addition, preterm birth, low birth weight, and fetal distress are more likely in fetuses of pregnant women who contract dengue fever, as well as there, maybe the risk of miscarriage.



The major techniques for stopping the spread of dengue disease are avoiding mosquito bites and managing the mosquito population. These recommendations may help lower your risk of mosquito bites if you reside in or visit a region where dengue fever is prevalent:

  • Stay in well-screened or air-conditioned housing. Although they can bite at night, the dengue-carrying mosquitoes are most active between dawn and dark.

  • Put on safety gear. Wear long sleeves, long pants, socks, and shoes while entering mosquito-infested areas.

  • Apply insect repellant. You can spray permethrin on your shoes, clothing, camping gear, and bed netting. Additionally, you can purchase clothing that already contains permethrin. Use a repellent for your skin that has at least a 10% concentration of DEET.

  • Reduce the habitat for mosquitoes. Typically found in and around homes, dengue-carrying mosquitoes develop in stagnant water that can accumulate in items like worn vehicle tires. By removing mosquito breeding grounds, you can contribute to a decrease in mosquito populations. Empty and clean containers that retain standing water, such as flower vases, animal dishes, and planting pots, at least once each week. During the time between cleanings, keep standing water containers covered.



  • Dengue does not have any specific antiviral medications, but maintaining a correct fluid balance is crucial.

  • Treatment is determined by the symptoms. With the regular follow-up and oral rehydration therapy, patients who can drink, are passing urine, have no "warning signs," and are generally healthy can be treated at home.

  • People who need hospital treatment include those who have additional health issues, exhibit "warning signs," or are incapable of managing routine follow-up. Care for those with severe dengue should be given at a location with access to an intensive care unit.

  • Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is used for fever and discomfort while NSAIDs such as ibuprofen and aspirin are avoided as they might aggravate the risk of bleeding.

  • Packed red blood cells or whole blood are recommended, while platelets and fresh frozen plasma are usually not.


Dr. Roshni Gautam 

Danphe Care