About Monkey Pox
What is monkeypox?
Monkeypox is a disease caused by the monkeypox virus. It is a viral zoonotic disease, meaning that it can spread from animals to humans. It can also spread between people.
It’s found mostly in areas of Africa but has been seen in other areas of the world. It causes flu-like symptoms such as fever and chills, and a rash that can take weeks to clear. There’s no proven treatment for monkeypox, but it usually goes away on its own.
For many years, monkeypox was mostly observed in Africa. Nevertheless, it is occasionally observed in other nations, such as the United States. The first monkeypox epidemic outside of Africa happened in the United States in the spring of 2003.
Beginning with a cluster of cases discovered in the United Kingdom, a continuing hMPXV epidemic was identified in May 2022. Although it has been speculated that instances were already spreading in Europe in the preceding months, the first recognized case was verified on May 6, 2022, in a person with travel connections to Nigeria, where the sickness is widespread. 3,776 cases had been verified as of June 23. Case reports began to come in from more and more nations and areas beginning on May 18. Most cases were from Europe, but there were also reports from North and South America, Asia, Africa, and Australia.
The incubation period (interval from infection to onset of symptoms) of monkeypox is usually from 6 to 13 days but can range from 5 to 21 days.
Early signs of monkeypox include flu-like symptoms like:
Swollen lymph nodes
Skin rash or lesions.
Typically, the rash appears one to three days after the fever first appears. Lesions can be flat or slightly elevated, contain a clear or yellowish fluid, crust over, then dry up and detach. A single individual may have a few to several thousand lesions. The face, hands, and feet are often the areas of the body where the rash is most prominent. Additionally, they are present on the lips, genitalia, and eyes.
Usually lasting 2 to 4 weeks, symptoms disappear on their own without medical intervention. Consult your doctor if you believe you may be experiencing monkeypox-related symptoms. If you have had close contact with anybody who has been diagnosed with monkeypox, let them know.
When you interact with an animal or a person who has the virus, you might acquire monkeypox. Direct contact with an infected animal's blood, body fluids, or lesions caused by the pox can result in animal-to-person transmission through damaged skin, such as that caused by bites or scratches.
It is less usual to contract monkeypox, although it can transfer from person to person. Person-to-person transmission takes place when you come into touch with the sores, scabs, respiratory droplets, or oral secretions of an infected person—typically through close, personal interactions like snuggling, kissing, or intercourse. It is yet unknown if the virus is transferred by semen or vaginal secretions, but study is underway.
Symptoms of monkeypox typically last two to four weeks and are self-limiting. Most monkeypox sufferers recover on their own without any medical intervention. Following diagnosis, your healthcare practitioner will keep an eye on your health, work to alleviate your symptoms, prevent dehydration, and administer antibiotics to treat any developing secondary bacterial infections.
Monkeypox does not yet have an authorized antiviral remedy. However, a number of antiviral drugs used to treat smallpox and other ailments could be beneficial for those with monkeypox infection. These antivirals include: Tecovirimat or ST-246 (TPOXX); Brincidofovir (Tembexa); and cidofovir (Vistide). Furthermore, during an outbreak, the use of intravenous vaccinia immune globulin (VIGIV), which is approved for the treatment of smallpox (vaccinia) vaccination-related problems, may be permitted to treat monkeypox and other pox viruses.
Monkeypox protection can be gained from smallpox vaccinations like Imvanex (Jynneos), which include vaccinia. This degree of protection was determined through research employing smallpox vaccinations tested in Africa in the latter part of 1980. Imvanex is currently being used by the UKHSA as post-exposure prophylaxis for those in close proximity to recognized instances.
Limiting person-to-person transmission and reducing human contact with diseased animals are essential to prevention. The best strategy to stop the virus that causes monkeypox from spreading is to:
Avoid contact with infected animals (especially sick or dead animals).
Avoid contact with bedding and other materials contaminated with the virus.
Thoroughly cook all foods that contain animal meat or parts.
Wash your hands frequently with soap and water.
Avoid contact with people who may be infected with the virus.
Practice safe sex, including the use of condoms.
Wear a mask that covers your mouth and nose when around others.
Clean and disinfect frequently touched surfaces.
Use personal protective equipment (PPE) when caring for people infected with the virus.
Dr. Roshni Gautam